1. I would agree that 2 champions is not enough to do draft pick, although not necessarily because you will get counter picked, but because you never know what your team will play and what the enemy team will play. You want to try to counter the enemy team and support the rest of your team as a whole as much as possible in any role you pick. Being able to only play 2 champions you could have both of them banned, both already being played, or be picking into your own counter in such cases you would be picking into your own loss.
2. There are some ways to help with this, such as smart casting or using the portraits to cast to your own team, but my biggest advice would be practice. Over time you will become accustomed to having that slight peripheral vision on the mini map (and this is a great skill for every lane and every champion).
3. This isn't really a question, but I guess I will offer my 2 pieces of advice.
1 - If you don't verbally harass (or over ping) your teammates they are more likely to listen to you and less likely to mute you.
2 - Try to ping conservatively in a manner that benefits and lets them know what you are telling them, without shoving that awful 'ding' in their ears 20 times.
I am sorry you got stuck with that team at that time, sometimes people have their own idea of what is best and it is hard to do anything to persuade them otherwise as a support. But honestly, I would not engage warwick, you need to be able to judge how much damage he can do to you, and if you can bait or distract him until your team arrives. If they are not coming (really sucks for you) then just help your team, maybe they decided 1 inhibitor is worth getting baron or something else.
4. Pre-game/Items: First off if you are playing with gp/10 runes you really should run flat armor reds. Do you own flat armor quints? I don't usually use them but some people find them invaluable. If you find yourself with this problem alot consider more defensive masteries, more MS, or building Heart of Gold first (Hey you dont need the mana and health regen if you are dying so fast anyways).
In game: Overall though that doesn't sound like your problem, you should be able to survive without any runes or masteries at all. I am not saying don't use them, I am just saying play smart. Do not ever put yourself in range of their harass unless you are going for a kill or save (with your adc), do not ever extend past halfway down the river as a support unless going for a kill (with your adc), and lastly if you can help it you should rarely be full out engaging with your adc without your jungle there. Its hard to judge what global ults may come, where their jungler is, if they could dive if mid came down, and until you see their jungler in top or mid lane and you judge that you are winning in items/levels/poke, don't engage. Of course these are general rules for laning phase, and should be broken at your discretion but the biggest problem I see with supports is wanting to harass and wanting to engage and then you will get caught... You don't need to completely dominate your lane to win, getting greedy will usually cost you, and hey just communicate with your jungle on ward placement and times and work out river or lane ganks and you can dominate.
5. The shortcuts for the "Attack" and "Retreat" pings are 'G' and 'V' respectively. If you mean you want them to see the "Ethri [Lulu] signals you to be careful" then you simply have to press 'V' then click on their champion otherwise it will say "Ethri [Lulu] signals to be careful" or "Ethri [Lulu] signals to fall back from the [whatever] turret". I don't know if you can give a specific person the retreat ping like that without clicking their actual champion, although I believe clicking 'precisely' on them on the minimap should work. Generally I am using the minimap for pings unless "Attack" pinging a specific champion to get my team to focus and help see him.
Hope this helps you. From your questions as a whole it sounds like you should try playing a few other roles, and find other champions you like. Some champions you will be good with some you won't, one thing that may help here is checking the champions "Difficulty" rating. Remember difficulty and IP price do not necessarily reflect on a champions capability.