I like pBlade, boots, sheen... sheen is a HUGE dps increase, nothing else compares, and why anyone would not rush sheen boggles my mind.... and then I generally Ionians, then zeal, phage, Triforce... every part of Triforce is of benefit to Jax, nothing wasted, and at that point his damage is very potent, and his survivability quite decent with 450 extra health, E and R. Then I've been getting a vamp scepter lately for more sustain and survivability (to be built into a sanguine down the road), and then grabbing an armor pen item. Ghostblade puts your W under 2.0 and can lead to some negative interaction with Triforce if you're not real careful, so I generally Last Whisper if anyone is building real armor, or if they're all squishy and not building armor, I Black Cleaver, as two swings in it's got the armor pen of LW beat against squishies, and it has noticably more AD, and a good chunk of AS, which is strong on Jax overall. At that point, I'm generally shutting anyone down, hard, that doesn't kite me to death... so... I start pining for move speed. The only practical way to up that at this point is with a Zeal > PD, as well as being the largest overall DPS increase. I then finish off my Sanguine Blade. If my gold is building up at the end, I'll sell my pBlade and grab another PD, for the extra MS and dps boost.
Rageblade is... a little bit of everything... and is OK for Jax but not great... he doesn't scale as well with AP as compared to AD, and should only be getting it if it's part of an AMAZING item for him otherwise like Sheen/Triforce. Gunblade is ok, but again, Jax doesn't scale as well with AP, and does the vast majority of his damage through auto attacks, which makes the spell vamp on it somewhat weak.