The first thing you have to learn how to do is how to play ranked in SOLO queue.
Also, you need to learn how to play solo queue in your given Elo bracket.
I can't really help with the second one as the meta changes everywhere, however, my advice, honestly, would be to practice the **** out of the champs in normals still. You've just started playing ranked according to lolking.net, so stop playing for awhile (I noticed you have 9 normals matches and only one ranked, which is good).
Honestly, here is what I would do. Play normals until you are 50% w/l ratio (I'm assuming you have a few more losses than wins). Regardless of what you do now, until you can dominate your lane 90% of the time (I see you probably did not do this with your Ahri ranked game) you cannot carry in your Elo bracket.
In my experience, the absolute most important part of solo queue (especially at lower Elo) is the laning phase. It's all about who dominates who (and then what they do after they dominate). Sometimes it's due to bad team comps (I've seen a team losing by 30 kills win simply because they had, like, Amumu, Malphite, Kennen, Ezreal, and Lux or whatever, you can't beat that AoE Stun/Ult combo, no matter how fed you are, but this isn't very common).
If you are top lane, your number one priority is to destroy your laning opponent and keep him underfed. Then you need to either roam to their jungle with your jungler, or roam to mid to get your mid fed, so that eventually the two of you can get your ADC fed. If you're mid your #1 priority is destroying your laning opponent and keeping him underfed and underleveled (APs scale better than everyone else with experience), then you need to roam top and bot to help your allies control their lanes.
Bot lane is a little different. Your job is to get as powerful as possible before teamfights start, and to gimp your opponent so that when teamfights start he's worthless. This is why a 10-minute bot tower push and destroy is often a bad idea. You won't be strong enough at that point yet to enter the fight, you still need farm.
Think of winning as a matter of averages. Imagine the "win" is decided by a series of "numbers" representing "mistakes taken advantage of" (because this is honestly how you win, by taking advantage of the opposing team's mistakes), with the number increasing in value by how important the mistake was. If both teams' sums of numbers total something like 1003 for Blue and 1028 for Purple (and you were blue, and say your own individual "Score" was 250 (so more than 1/5), and your lane oppoenent's "score" was say 197 (so slightly less than 1/5, you did your "job" by shutting them down)) then a small increase in your skill level would have been all you needed to actually win that game, however, let's say they have a smurf on their team and the scores were something like 1003 for Blue (you) and 1270 for Purple, if your and your lane opponent's "scores" are still the same, you can see how much harder it would be for you to actually make a difference in this game. However, that smurf's individual score would be something like 4-500, which means you can be that good, you just aren't yet.
This is the concept behind carrying. That smurf actually did 30-40% of the work for his team. He still needed the team to win, but he did most of it. He carried himself first, and then he led his team to victory by capitalizing on the other team's mistakes and not allowing them to capitalize on his team's mistakes. He played the game so well, that even though you also did well, you stood no chance against him.
The reason I bring up averages is this: If you are constantly at like 250 "points" while your laning opponent is constantly at around 200 "points," you aren't going to get nearly as far as if you are instead at 300 points and he's consistently at 150. Learning to shut down your lane *that* much better can make all the difference when it comes to average win rate.
EDIT: I'm very proud of that comparison, I came up with it on the spot. Wow. Go me. (Maybe it's useless to others but it makes a ton of sense to me, lol)