I have lots of success with a competent team mate using roll and taunt to get early kills, often double kills. Getting another champion with you is key to a good Rammus game I have found. Getting 2 points into taunt will help keep people running away and keep them in tremors and maxing out roll then go for his defensive ability.
Don't forget to turn tremors on for turrets either, its great for pushing, turret destroying and team battles, it has a low cool down and even lower with the right runes and items.
I don't bother with heart of gold usually and always stack up hp, armor, magic resist in that order usually, forget being offensive with him, his abilities alone are enough damage and buff to your team that they will take care of the rest. Guardian Angel, Legion, Warmogs, Mercury treads, Frozen heart and Banshees Veil I have found to be the best items for him for tanking anything. Lot of abilities do a mix of physical and magical damage so of course adjust those to your taste if you face more of one then the other.
I usually enjoy around 10 kills a game and 10-20 assists with Rammus with good team mates.