When I play against Graves, I like to take Miss Fortune or Draven. Both outrange him by 25, have the ability to outburst him, AND outtrade him. They don't have the same AOE power he does, especially in teamfights, but they can do well in lane. MF can poke and burst with Double Up and autoattacks, and then follow up with Impure Shots' active to win the autoattack trading after. Draven can poke with Spinning Axe, then burst/trade with Stand Aside and Blood Rush.
The bulk of Graves' damage lies in his Buckshot, especially at close range. If Graves goes in on you, try to avoid his Buckshot, but stand your ground after he uses it and keep autoattacking him. MF and Draven excel in the longer trades once Buckshot is out of the way.