The current system is flat out terrible and the only excuse for not changing it is pure laziness. The idea that the elo system creates groups of people that are marginalized or inflated is not a new one but there are ideas on how to change it.
LoL currently monitors stats like damage done to champions, k/d/a, gold earned, healing done, etc. Instead of making changes on elo based on team performance, a system that could rank an individual performance on several critera to generate a performance rank relevant to all players in that game could be generated.
The individuals' performance rank is then scaled against their current elo to generate a reward or penalty for their individual performance.
A sysem like this would still be plauged by the fact that if the enemy team is fed your going to be forced down the ranking, but it gives a player a chance to mitigate the damages that would be done to their elo.
While it is a team game, your elo is an individual score, and the current elo system is the result of an unwillingness to change because it would be too much work. Many might think that LoL is too large to fail, but if a new game that is similar comes out that has a better ranking system, I can't say I'd keep playing LoL.