There isn't a lot to say because the skills you need to deal with a Talon in mid will come naturally with practice, but on thing to note is that Talon is a very short ranged champion, and Malzahar in particular is the king of turtling in mid. Just keep your distance and work on pumping points into Malefic Visions and using your range and Voidlings to keep your farm up while you avoid getting hit with Rake or Cutthroat. You'll fall behind early on but that's the price you pay for getting countered, mid game Malzahar can drop a single Malefic Vision into a wave and it will propagate continually on its own allowing you to rack up massive farm after you get out of lane.
Just watch out for Talon's Ultimate, he can dive effectively with it even if you don't get hit by the initial burst. So try to be conservative with Flash to deny Talon as many kills as you can, and use your Ultimate combined with Malefic Visions and Null Zone (Under your own feet) to punish Talon for coming into melee with you after his silence ends. Once you become a little more skilled, you can learn to silence Talon while he's in stealth. This will usually waste his ult completely if you time it well enough, this can give you a fair chance to retaliate easier and you can get fair trades with him. But overall playing against Talon is very difficult, do your best and try to keep him from snowballing. Also having your jungler keep him on his toes with the threat of a gank can be very helpful and can save you from the threat of tower diving. Your primary job is to keep him from snowballing as he scales quite well with gold, but you will scale much better as Malzahar. Letting him own the laning phase is a small price to pay if you can shut him down later.