Have you never played an RTS game? Those all have unlocked screens, and adjusting ought to be easy for you.
Still, I have two things for your consideration.
1) You can use spacebar to center the camera on your champion. This can help you keep track of yourself in teamfights.
2) You can use spacebar in locked camera mode to unlock it, I think? This would let you swing the camera around to see other things when needed, but otherwise leave it locked on you.
As for map awareness, that comes from checking your minimap. Locked vs unlocked should have no impact on you looking at the minimap.