I am barely into ranked atm so I can't help with most of this, however, there is one thing I have noticed in some normal games. If you are against a jungling champion, and you don't have one, then both top and bottom need to deny farm like crazy. I was playing against a solo-bot rumble yesterday, and I was Ziggs. What ended up happening is I poked him so much he had to return to his tower. My team mate and I basically decided to not fight at all, and hope the minions never recede back.
End game Rumble was down about 3 levels and the enemy jungler couldn't gank top due to wards being placed everywhere. All in all it was GG.
Dragon is always worth getting, no matter how farmed up you are, chances are they can defend against you if you don't have a dragon. End game though, if you are losing bad and you know they are going to go get dragon don't worry about it, and just defend with your life. If you can keep them at bay until it wears off. Not only will you get a bunch of farm, but it is rather degrading to the enemy team, and shows that even with it they can't beat you.
Yes wards are awesome, in TT you generally don't need more than 4 on the map at a time. (Unless of course there are some really specific objectives you have in mind)
Balancing a team... Ya, not much I can say here. One thing to think about is gap closers. When I play as certain super squishy mages, I stay in back and kill almost everyone really fast. If they can catch up to me though, I have a bad time... Malphite is probably my favorite tank for TT. He deals massive amounts of murder damage and he can take a beating... Example, a malphite with boots of speed bought a FoN and proceeded to destroy my team with his damage. Even though I was the only AP champ on the team. (I hate malphites passive so much...)
Hope this helps, I know it's a bit spammy, but may be worth the read. For anyone else that wants to post this again, I'd recommend just shortening it up a ton.