Not the most toxic case I've ever seen, but your attitude is quite negative, and you're a dick to your teammates. Definitely understandable that you got a Punish for this.
Just learn from it, and stop being a complete dick in your games. If you have to, don't talk unless you need to call mias.
Most of my ingame chat consists of "gj", "ty", "mia", and objective discussions(like start buffs for junglers, or dragon/baron/towers later on). There's no real reason for anything beyond that, certainly not telling teammates that they suck.