1. Anyone who build heavy armor is someone to avoid since you only do AD and one form of true damage. I'm saying more then just a Thornmail.
2. An enemy that knows when to CC you, yes your ult does stop you from being CC but a smart enemy will know when to use it against you.
3. Someone who uses your same build. I mean basically a Jax, Yi, Xin, any other Tanky DPS that builds attack speed, life steal, and damage. I have never found myself in this match yet so I'm not too sure what it could go down to personally but I believe it is who has the higher of the three or who could do the most burst.
From the look of your enemy it appears that they did not have any CC, and you did the right thing. Target their healer, then the carry, the tanks, lastly the other carry.
Try to avoid being CC by having Merc Treads (greaves are nice but as Olaf that 25% isn't much due to your passive), Banshees, Quicksilver, and Cleanse (if you can spare the summoner spell, since you jungle)